Research

The research shared below supports the beliefs that are expressed in the Shoespiracy documentary that modern footwear developed over the last 50 or so years is ruining our feet, and our overall health.

Our feet are biomechanical masterpieces, millions of years in the making, it seems a shame not to use them. When left to their own devices, they can cope with everything from walking and running to jumping and dancing. But by cramming them into a modern shoe, you negate their natural function. A thick sole restricts flexibility. A narrow toe box compromises natural movement. A shoe heel & cushioning robs you of your natural spring.

There’s no shortage of evidence that your feet can cope pretty well without unnecessary padding, support or orthotics and that foot pain is attributable to modern footwear.

You can read the studies, research, opinions of experts and journalists below.

To learn more about transitioning to minimal barefoot shoes, and healthier, stronger, natural feet visit VIVOBAREFOOT & find out more about how to transition safely.

  

77% (of North Americans) adults suffer foot problems. New Survey Reveals Majority of Americans Suffer from Foot Pain
Source: American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-survey-reveals-majority-of-americans-suffer-from-foot-pain-259775741.html

 

Conclusions drawn from a comparative study of the feet of barefooted and shoe-wearing peoples
Author: Phillip Hoffman
http://nohatka.cz/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/hoffman-1905-barefoot.pdf

  

Walking in Minimalist Shoes Is Effective for Strengthening Foot Muscles
Authors: Ridge ST, Olsen MT, Bruening DA, Jurgensmeier K, Griffin D, Davis IS, Johnson AW
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30113521/

 

Ticking Time Bomb: Childrens shoes cause health problems later in life for Adults
Source: Dr. Phil Maffetone
https://philmaffetone.com/kids-shoes/?fbclid=IwAR1prpLItWpxucx3JRepsZsXfEkpCMhoi7TqfE5NH4tjjMPuz5TwDi1onMI
  

Foot Strike Patterns Differ Between Children and Adolescents Growing up Barefoot vs. Shod.
Authors: Hollander K, de Villiers JE, Venter R, Sehner S, Wegscheider K, Braumann KM, Zech A.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29145687

 

Foot strength and stiffness are related to footwear use in a comparison of minimally- vs. conventionally-shod populations
Source: Nicholas B. Holowka, Ian J. Wallace & Daniel E. Lieberman
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21916-7

 
How going Barefoot affects your Brain
Author: Dr Sam Oltman, ND
https://www.correcttoes.com/foot-help/how-going-barefoot-affects-your-brain/

  

Athletic footwear affects balance in men
Author: S RobbinsE WakedG J GouwJ McClaran
https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/28/2/117.short

 

Motor Skills of Children and Adolescents Are Influenced by Growing up Barefoot or Shod

Author: Astrid Zech, Ranel Venter, Johanna E de Villiers, Susanne Sehner, Karl Wegscheider, Karsten Hollander

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996942/

 

Barefoot is better for kids‚ new study shows
Author: Naledi Shange
https://www.timeslive.co.za/sunday-times/lifestyle/health-and-sex/2018-10-26-barefoot-is-better-for-kids-new-study-shows/

 

Children with no shoes on 'do better in classroom', major study finds
Author: Rachael Pells
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/schools-encouraged-to-adopt-no-shoes-policy-to-improve-pupils-learning-and-behaviour-a7044576.html
Source: http://rubble.heppell.net/places/shoeless/default.html

 

Studies show kids who grow up barefoot have better motor skills.
Author: Karsten Hollander, Babette C. van der Zwaard, Johanna Elsabe de Villiers, Klaus-Michael Brauman, Ranel Venter, Astrid Zech
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010736/

  

Effects of footwear on treadmill running biomechanics in preadolescent children.
Author: Hollander K, Riebe D, Campe S, Brauman KM, Zech A
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24890307

 

Being barefoot. Prevalence at home, in school and during sport: a cross-sectional survey of 714 New Zealand secondary school boys.
Author: Francis P, Schofield G, Mackay L
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30034544

 

The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 2300 children.
Author: Rao UB, Joseph B
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1624509

 

Athletic footwear: unsafe due to perceptual illusions
Author: Steven E Robbins and Gerard J. Gouw
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5689/dc03522ff19dabad98209e74b17ee9d8939c.pdf

 

Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.
Author: S Robbins, E Waked
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1332563/

 

The plantar sole is a 'dynamometric map' for human balance control.
Author: Kavounoudias A, Roll R, Roll JP
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9831459

 

A comparative biomechanical analysis of habitually unshod and shod runners based on a foot morphological difference.
Author: Mei Q, Fernandez J, Fu W, Feng N, Gu Y
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964998 

 

The effects of habitual footwear use: foot shape and function in native barefoot walkers
Author: K D’AoUt, T.C Pataky, D. De Clercq, P. Aerts
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19424280903386411

 

Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence-based?
Author: C E Richards P J Magin, R Callister
https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/43/3/159.short

 

The effect of three different levels of footwear stability on pain outcomes in women runners: a randomised control trial
Author: Michael B Ryan, Gordon A Valiant, Kymberly McDonald,  Jack E Taunton
https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/45/9/715.short